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# Oracle Locator vs Oracle Spatial: A Reflection on Oracle Licensing of the SDO_GEOM Package

**UPDATES**

This article is left here for historical reasons only.

- From 12C onwards all of the SDO_GEOM package is available to Locator users. However, SDO_GEOM.SDO_LENGTH, when given an XYZ linestring will only return its 2D length for Locator users but its slope length for Enterprise users.
- Spatial Companion For Oracle (SC4O) – See end of this article.
- Always check the spatial documentation for a specific release to see what is licensed to Locator users.

**0. Background.**

This reflection has come about because of the many times I have gone to sites running Oracle Standard Edition (SE or SE1) that are, accidently, using some of the “geoprocessing” functions in the SDO_GEOM package that are licensed only for use with Enterprise Edition (EE). Oracle XE adds to this confusion as it is shipped with the complete SDO_GEOM package.

Where a restricted use exists for a certain SDO_GEOM package “geoprocessing” function, that restriction also applies to its related ST_* function in the SQL3/MM (or OGC) type library.

**1. Licensing.**

**1.1 Introduction.**

Oracle Locator is a cut down version of Oracle Spatial Standard Edition (SE/SE1) database installations.

From Appendix B of the Spatial User Guide we see:

Oracle Locator (also referred to as Locator) is a feature of Oracle Database 10g Standard Edition. Locator provides core features and services available in Oracle Spatial. It provides significant capabilities typically required to support Internet and wireless service-based applications and partner-based GIS solutions. Locator is not designed to be a solution for geographic information system (GIS) applications requiring complex spatial data management. If you need capabilities such as linear referencing, spatial functions, or coordinate system transformations, use Oracle Spatial instead of Locator.

Locator is available with both the Standard and Enterprise Editions of Oracle Database 10g. Spatial is a priced option available only with Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition. Spatial includes all Locator features as well as other features that are not available with Locator.

The installation of Locator depends on the successful and proper installation of Oracle interMedia. interMedia is installed and configured with Oracle Database 10g, although you can install interMedia manually if necessary, as documented in Oracle interMedia User’s Guide. During the installation of interMedia, Locator is installed.

In general, Locator includes the data types, operators, and indexing capabilities of Oracle Spatial, along with a limited set of the functions and procedures of Spatial. The Locator features include the following:

- An object type (SDO_GEOMETRY) that describes and supports any type of geometry
- A spatial indexing capability that lets you create spatial indexes on geometry data
- Spatial operators (described in Chapter 11) that use the spatial index for performing spatial queries
- Some geometry functions and the SDO_AGGR_MBR spatial aggregate function
- Coordinate system support for explicit geometry and layer transformations (SDO_CS.TRANSFORM function and SDO_CS.TRANSFORM_LAYER procedure, described in Chapter 13)
- Tuning functions and procedures (SDO_TUNE package, described in Chapter 19)
- Spatial utility functions (SDO_UTIL package, described in Chapter 20)
- Integration with Oracle Application Server 10g

Much confusion exists about what is licensed and what is not wrt Locator. What is actually licensed is clearly documented in Appendix B of the Spatial User guide. Because, this article concentrates on the SDO_GEOM package functions and procedures, we note that only those functions listed in Table B-1 are licensed. These are:

SDO_GEOM.SDO_DISTANCE() SDO_GEOM.VALIDATE_GEOMETRY_WITH_CONTEXT() SDO_GEOM.VALIDATE_LAYER_WITH_CONTEXT()

There is no confusion about the other, self-contained, packages as these are only installed for Enterprise Edition. These packages are:

- Linear referencing system (LRS) support
- Spatial analysis and mining functions and procedures (SDO_SAM package)
- Geocoding support (SDO_GCDR package)
- GeoRaster support
- Topology data model
- Network data model

** 1.2 Why confusion?**

Why is there such confusion about the user of the SDO_GEOM function other than the three mentioned above in Standard Edition databases?

Simply put, when an SE database is created using Oracle’s DataBase Configuration Assistant (DBCA), all the functions and procedures in SDO_GEOM are installed: not just the actual three that are licensed for SE (see above). (The installer should be fixed to ensure that these are not installed.)

Coupled to this is the fact that very few day-to-day practitioners read the documentation and most certainly do not read or are a party to the license agreements negotiated and signed by management. Users simply connect to the installed software and start using it. When one of these users describes the SDO_GEOM package in SqlPlus (DESCRIBE MDSYS.SDO_GEOM) all SDO_GEOM functions are displayed: they therefore assume that use of these must be allowed. Finally, much/most commercial software used in the GIS world is keycoded to stop use of unlicensed components: that Oracle doesn’t do this is not widely known and contributes to the unintentional breaking of the license agreement.

**1.3 A way out of this?**

Is there a way out of this problem?

Well, certainly, users should try and familiarise themselves with the license and try and conform to it. After all, Oracle owns the software and has the right to set whatever terms they want with respect to the licensing and use of their software.

I personally have a view that some of the “geoprocessing” functions in the SDO_GEOM package are not “geoprocessing” functions at all but properties of a spatial object and should be free of license restrictions. Specifically:

MDSYS.SDO_GEOM.SDO_AREA() MDSYS.SDO_GEOM.SDO_LENGTH() MDSYS.SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBR() MDSYS.SDO_GEOM.SDO_MIN_MBR_ORDINATE() MDSYS.SDO_GEOM.SDO_MAX_MBR_ORDINATE()

With respect to the other functions, eg SDO_UNION, SDO_INTERSECTION etc, while these are “geoprocessing” functions they are a necessary part of the OGC and SQL3/MM standard for an implementation of a spatial type that that Oracle should allow their use within Locator for no additional charge. However, they have decided otherwise and I respect that decision: perhaps they could consider licensing these functions independently of other Enterprise Edition Spatial features (eg LRS etc)? Certainly, most of the Locator users I know would happily part with $1,000 per cpu to be able to use these functions.

However, until such a thing happens, I will now outline some of the common SDO_GEOM functions that are illegally used in Locator installations demonstrating how they can be replaced by SQL or functions that are licensed for use.

**2. MBR Functions.**

**2.1 SDO_GEOM Functions.**

The SDO_GEOM package contains the following functions:

MDSYS.SDO_GEOM.SDO_MBR MDSYS.SDO_GEOM.SDO_MIN_MBR_ORDINATE MDSYS.SDO_GEOM.SDO_MAX_MBR_ORDINATE

The SDO_MBR SDO_MBR function returns an optimized rectangle SDO_GEOMETRY object:

SELECT sdo_geom.sdo_mbr(geom) as MBR_Geometry FROM transport WHERE oid = 100000 / MBR_GEOMETRY(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z), SDO_ELEM_INFO, SDO_ORDINATES) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------------------- & SDO_GEOMETRY(2003, 82468, NULL, SDO_ELEM_INFO_ARRAY(1, 1003, 3),SDO_ORDINATE_ARRAY(489588.734, 5442823.66, 489666.972, 5442858.68))

`To access the actual optimized rectangle ordinates one can do this:`

SELECT o.* FROM transport t, TABLE(sdo_geom.sdo_mbr(t.geom).sdo_ordinates) o WHERE t.oid = 100000 / COLUMN_VALUE ------------ 489588.734 5442823.66 489666.972 5442858.68

To “flatten” this into a single row, one could use the Locator licensed SDO_UTIL package’s GetVertices function as follows:

SELECT min(o.x) as minx, max(o.x) as maxx, min(o.y) as miny, max(o.y) as maxy FROM TRANSPORT t, TABLE(sdo_util.GetVertices(sdo_geom.sdo_mbr(t.geom))) o WHERE t.oid = 100000 / MINX MAXX MINY MAXY ------------- ------------- ------------ ----------- 503265.593 & 503361.836 & 5206993.37 5207088.18

Sensibly, however, most people simplify the SQL to access the lower left and upper right ordinates of the MBR optimized rectangle by using the provided MIN/MAX MBR functions as follows:

SELECT sdo_geom.sdo_min_mbr_ordinate(geom,1) as MINX, sdo_geom.sdo_max_mbr_ordinate(geom,1) as MAXX, sdo_geom.sdo_min_mbr_ordinate(geom,2) as MINY, sdo_geom.sdo_max_mbr_ordinate(geom,2) as MAXY FROM transport WHERE oid = 100000 / MINX MAXX MINY MAXY ------------- ------------ ------------- ------------- 489588.734 489666.972 5442823.66 5442858.68

So how do we avoid the use of these licensed functions in Locator installations?

**2.2 SQL**

Firstly, one should note that the SDO_AGGR_MBR aggregate operator is licensed for use in Locator. The MBR functions in SDO_GEOM can be replaced with something that would conform to Oracle licensing in a trivial amount of time.

For example, the above SQL could be replaced by (a slightly different form of the SDO_MBR example above):

SELECT * FROM TABLE(SELECT sdo_aggr_mbr(geom).sdo_ordinates FROM transport WHERE oid = 100000) / COLUMN_VALUE ------------ 489588.734 5442823.66 489666.972 5442858.68

To return a single row we could do this:

SELECT min(case when rownum = 1 then column_value else NULL end) as minx, min(case when rownum = 3 then column_value else NULL end) as maxx, max(case when rownum = 2 then column_value else NULL end) as miny, max(case when rownum = 4 then column_value else NULL end) as maxy FROM TABLE(SELECT sdo_aggr_mbr(geom).sdo_ordinates FROM transport WHERE oid = 100000) / MINX MAXX MINY MAXY ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- 489588.734 489666.972 5442823.66 5442858.68

Or we could do this:

SELECT min(c.x) as minx, max(c.x) as maxx, min(c.y) as miny, max(c.y) as maxy FROM (SELECT sdo_aggr_mbr(t.geom) as mbr FROM transport t WHERE oid = 100000) g, TABLE(mdsys.sdo_util.getvertices(g.mbr)) c; / MINX MAXX MINY MAXY ---------- ---------- ---------- ------------ 489588.734 489666.972 5442823.66 5442858.68

(Note: there are many ways, in SQL, to “skin the cat”. I have deliberately done this in this article.)

** 2.3 SDO_3GL.**

**2.3.1 EXTENT_OF_OBJECT.**

Locator also includes the SDO_3GL package which is not mentioned in any of the licensing documents. One can conclude from this that the SDO_3GL package is not constrained by Locator license restrictions.

Investigating SDO_3GL we find that the package contains the following MBR procedure.

PROCEDURE EXTENT_OF_OBJECT Argument Name Type In/Out Default? ------------- ------------- ------ -------- DIMOBJ SDO_DIM_ARRAY IN GEOMOBJ SDO_GEOMETRY IN MIN_X NUMBER OUT MAX_X NUMBER OUT MIN_Y NUMBER OUT MAX_Y NUMBER OUT

Note that this is a procedure not a function: it cannot be used in SQL SELECT statements. The only way we could use this would be via creating a set of functions that encapsulate this procedure and return the relevant elements. I will not do this here as these functions are relatively simple to write and I have already encapsulated them in an MBR object which is included in my “free PL/SQL packages”:http://www.spatialdbadvisor.com/file_download/18: I will demonstrate their use in Section 2.3.3 below.

### 2.3.2 MBR_GEOMETRY.

The SDO_3GL package also contains the MBR_GEOMETRY function whose signature is:

FUNCTION MBR_GEOMETRY RETURNS SDO_GEOMETRY

Argument Name Type In/Out Default?

————- ————- —— ——–

GEOM SDO_GEOMETRY IN

DIM SDO_DIM_ARRAY IN

This can be used to return the extent of a feature as follows:

SELECT min(c.x) as minx, max(c.x) as maxx, min(c.y) as miny, max(c.y) as maxy FROM user_sdo_geom_metadata usgm, transport t, TABLE(mdsys.sdo_util.getvertices(mdsys.sdo_3gl.mbr_geometry(t.geom,usgm.diminfo))) c WHERE usgm.table_name = 'TRANSPORT' AND t.oid = 100000 / MINX MAXX MINY MAXY ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- 489588.734 489666.972 5442823.66 5442858.68

### 2.3.3 MBR package.

The above query using my MBR package would be:

SELECT codesys.mbr(t.geom,usgm.diminfo).minx as minx, codesys.mbr(t.geom,usgm.diminfo).miny as miny, codesys.mbr(t.geom,usgm.diminfo).maxx as maxx, codesys.mbr(t.geom,usgm.diminfo).maxy as maxy FROM user_sdo_geom_metadata usgm, transport t WHERE usgm.table_name = 'TRANSPORT' AND oid = 100000 / MINX MINX MINY MAXY ---------- ---------- ---------- ---------- 489588.734 5442823.66 489666.972 5442858.68

The MBR package only uses SDO_3GL.EXTENT_OF_OBJECT procedure and so does not break Standard Edition license restrictions. The MDSYS dependencies of the MBR package can be ascertained as follows:

SELECT referenced_owner, referenced_name FROM dba_dependencies WHERE owner = 'CODESYS' AND name = 'MBR' AND referenced_owner = 'MDSYS' / REFERENCED_OWNER REFERENCED_NAME ---------------- --------------- MDSYS SDO_GEOMETRY MDSYS SDO_GEOMETRY MDSYS SDO_DIM_ELEMENT MDSYS SDO_DIM_ARRAY MDSYS SDO_DIM_ARRAY MDSYS SDO_3GL 6 rows selected.

In more detail (connected as CODESYS):

SELECT text FROM user_source WHERE name = 'MBR' AND INSTR(UPPER(text),'SDO_3GL') > 1 / TEXT --------------------------------------------- MDSYS.SDO_3GL.EXTENT_OF_OBJECT( MDSYS.SDO_3GL.EXTENT_OF_OBJECT(

But what about SDO_GEOM? Using:

SELECT text FROM user_source WHERE name = 'MBR' AND INSTR(UPPER(text),'SDO_GEOM') > 1 / TEXT -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Constructor Function MBR(p_geometry IN MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY, Constructor Function MBR(p_geometry IN MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY, Member Procedure SetLargestPart( p_geometry IN MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY, Constructor Function MBR( p_geometry IN MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY, Constructor Function MBR( p_geometry IN MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY, Member Procedure SetLargestPart( p_geometry IN MDSYS.SDO_GEOMETRY, 6 rows selected.

No SDO_GEOM package functions are being used by my MBR package.

**3.0 Centroids.**

**3.1 SDO_GEOM.SDO_CENTROID.**

Now, the SDO_GEOM.SDO_CENTROID function is an Enterprise feature. The SDO_GEOM.SDO_CENTROID function computes a mathematically weighted centroid that does not necessarily fall within a polygon as in the following example:

!/images/8.gif (Possible centroid locations)!

This function is called as follows:

SELECT mdsys.sdo_geom.sdo_centroid(a.geom,usgm.diminfo) FROM user_sdo_geom_metadata usgm, admin a WHERE usgm.table_name = 'ADMIN' AND a.oid = 46953 / MDSYS.SDO_GEOM.SDO_CENTROID(A.GEOM,USGM.DIMINFO)(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z), SDO_ELEM_INFO, SDO_ORDINATES) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SDO_GEOMETRY(2001, 82468, SDO_POINT_TYPE(327753.624, 5486215.53, NULL), NULL, NULL) Elapsed: 00:00:00.01

But what if you don’t have an Enterprise license?

You have two other options for generating a centroid from geometry data using Standard Edition functions.

**3.2 GEOM.SDO_CENTROID.**

Firstly, you could use my GEOM package’s sdo_centroid function. This is a powerful function that is different from Oracle’s SDO_GEOM.SDO_CENTROID function in that it guarantees that a centroid will fall within a polygon and not outside it (a “para-centroid”). It will also place the centroid in the largest of all parts of a multi-part polygon and will not place a centroid inside any hole in any of the parts.

We call this function as follows:

SELECT codesys.geom.sdo_centroid(a.geom,usgm.diminfo) FROM user_sdo_geom_metadata usgm, admin a WHERE usgm.table_name = 'ADMIN' AND a.oid = 46953 / CODESYS.GEOM.SDO_CENTROID(A.GEOM,USGM.DIMINFO)(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z), SDO_ELEM_INFO, SDO_ORDINATES) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- SDO_GEOMETRY(2001, NULL, SDO_POINT_TYPE(327741.04, 5486221.36, NULL), NULL, NULL)

**3.3 SDO_3GL.CENTROID.**

Secondly, you can use the CENTROID function in the SDO_3GL package. This will return exactly the same result as the SDO_GEOM.SDO_CENTROID function. You use it as follows:

SELECT mdsys.sdo_3gl.centroid(usgm.diminfo,a.geom) FROM user_sdo_geom_metadata usgm, admin a WHERE usgm.table_name = 'ADMIN' AND a.oid = 46953 / MDSYS.SDO_3GL.CENTROID(USGM.DIMINFO,A.GEOM)(SDO_GTYPE, SDO_SRID, SDO_POINT(X, Y, Z), SDO_ELEM_INFO, SDO_ORDINATES) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ SDO_GEOMETRY(2001, 82468, SDO_POINT_TYPE(327753.624, 5486215.53, NULL), NULL, NULL)

**4.0 Buffers.**

**4.1 SDO_GEOM.BUFFER.**

The SDO_GEOM.SDO_BUFFER function is also licensed only for use in Enterprise Edition.

We use this function as follows:

SELECT mdsys.sdo_geom.sdo_buffer(a.geom,usgm.diminfo,10) FROM user_sdo_geom_metadata usgm, admin a WHERE usgm.table_name = 'ADMIN' AND a.oid = 46953 / -- resulting data not shown --

But how can we generate a buffer in Standard Edition?

Again, we can look to the SDO_3GL package.

FUNCTION GENERATE_BUFFER RETURNS SDO_GEOMETRY Argument Name Type In/Out Default? ------------- ------------- ------ -------- DIMOBJ SDO_DIM_ARRAY IN GEOMOBJ SDO_GEOMETRY IN DIST NUMBER IN

Which we use as follows:

SELECT mdsys.sdo_3gl.generate_buffer(usgm.diminfo,a.geom,10) FROM user_sdo_geom_metadata usgm, admin a WHERE usgm.table_name = 'ADMIN' AND a.oid = 46953 / -- Resulting data not shown --

Are the buffers generated by the sdo_geom and sdo_3gl functions the same?

SELECT MDSYS.SDO_GEOM.RELATE( MDSYS.SDO_3GL.GENERATE_BUFFER(usgm.diminfo,a.geom,10), usgm.diminfo, 'mask=determine', MDSYS.SDO_GEOM.SDO_BUFFER(a.geom,usgm.diminfo,10), usgm.diminfo) As Relationship FROM user_sdo_geom_metadata usgm, admin a WHERE usgm.table_name = 'ADMIN' AND a.oid = 46953 / RELATIONSHIP ------------ EQUAL

However, we now meet another problem: SDO_GEOM.RELATE is an Enterprise function! How can we check the relationship between two object with Locator?

Can we find a solution in the SDO_3GL RELATE functions?

SELECT MDSYS.SDO_3GL.RELATE( usgm.diminfo, MDSYS.SDO_3GL.GENERATE_BUFFER(usgm.diminfo,a.geom,10), 'mask=determine', usgm.diminfo, MDSYS.SDO_GEOM.SDO_BUFFER(a.geom,usgm.diminfo,10)) as Relationship FROM user_sdo_geom_metadata usgm, admin a WHERE usgm.table_name = 'ADMIN' AND a.oid = 46953 / RELATIONSHIP ------------ 111111111

What does this mean?

Well, if we do this:

SELECT MDSYS.SDO_3GL.RELATE( usgm.diminfo, a.geom, 'mask=determine', usgm.diminfo, MDSYS.SDO_GEOM.SDO_BUFFER(a.geom,usgm.diminfo,10)) as Relationship FROM user_sdo_geom_metadata usgm, admin a WHERE usgm.table_name = 'ADMIN' AND a.oid = 46953 / RELATIONSHIP ------------ 111111111

So, a bit mask of all 1s cannot mean EQUAL. I will investigate these masks and functions further to see what else I can discover and report back on them in an edited version of this article.

**5.0 Area and Length**

**5.1 Comment**

It has always amazed me that these two functions:

MDSYS.SDO_GEOM.SDO_AREA() MDSYS.SDO_GEOM.SDO_LENGTH()

…are considered geoprocessing as these are *properties* of a geometric object and not something that results from the interaction of two objects. Still, it is Oracle’s right to license their technology as they see fit. But, given that these two functions are used an enormous amount in Locator installations we need a way out of the licensing dilemma.

There are two approaches. One is to see what is in the MDSYS.SDO_3GL package; the other is Java Topology Suite. I will only cover the first here and leave the latter for another blog article.

**5.2 SDO_3GL functions.**

The MDSYS.SDO_3GL package contains two procedures (not functions):

PROCEDURE LENGTH_AREA Argument Name Type In/Out Default? ------------- -------------- ------ -------- DIMOBJ SDO_DIM_ARRAY IN GEOMOBJ SDO_GEOMETRY IN FLAG BINARY_INTEGER IN LENGTH NUMBER OUT AREA NUMBER OUT PROCEDURE LENGTH_AREA Argument Name Type In/Out Default? ------------- -------------- ------ -------- DIMOBJ SDO_DIM_ARRAY IN GEOMOBJ SDO_GEOMETRY IN FLAG BINARY_INTEGER IN UNIT VARCHAR2 IN LENGTH NUMBER OUT AREA NUMBER OUT

Note that the two procedures implement both the area and length processing. Both take a flag that indicates which property is required: length or area. The latter includes a UNIT field in case the caller wants the result in different units from the default: to use the units the SDO_SRID property of the SDO_GEOMETRY object must be non-NULL and the value must exist in the MDSYS.SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE table.

SELECT uom_id, SUBSTR(unit_of_meas_name,1,50) as measure FROM SDO_UNITS_OF_MEASURE ORDER BY 2;

Experimenting with the FLAG argument shows that:

Computes the Area of the geometry object

Computes the length/boundary of a geometry object

(Note: This is counter-intuitive as the our parameters in the SDO_3GL.LENGTH_AREA procedures are the revers of this.)

In my GEOM package I have created four “wrapper” functions that provide a drop-in replacement for the SDO_GEOM.SDO_AREA and SDO_GEOM.SDO_LENGTH functions. Here is the definition of the GEOM.AREA implementations.

Function Length( p_geometry in sdo_geometry, p_diminfo in sdo_dim_array, p_units in varchar2 := 'Meter' ) Return number deterministic Is v_length number; v_area number; v_units varchar2(20) := p_units; Begin If ( p_geometry.sdo_srid is null ) Then v_units := NULL; End If; mdsys.sdo_3gl.length_area(p_diminfo,p_geometry,2,v_units,v_area,v_length); return v_length; End Length; Function Length( p_geometry in sdo_geometry, p_tolerance in number, p_units in varchar2 := 'Meter' ) Begin Return &&defaultSchema.geom.Length( p_geometry, MDSYS.SDO_DIM_ARRAY( MDSYS.SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('X', &&defaultSchema..Constants.c_MaxVal, &&defaultSchema..Constants.c_MaxVal, p_tolerance), MDSYS.SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('Y', &&defaultSchema..Constants.c_MaxVal, &&defaultSchema..Constants.c_MaxVal, p_tolerance)), p_units); End Length;

Finally, an example to show that these functions return the correct results.

SELECT substr(PolyType,1,26) as polygon_Name, mdsys.sdo_geom.sdo_length(a.geom,b.diminfo) as sdo_length, codesys.geom.length(a.geom,b.diminfo) as geom_length, mdsys.sdo_geom.sdo_area(a.geom,b.diminfo) as sdo_area, codesys.geom.area(a.geom,b.diminfo) as geom_area FROM ProjPoly2D a, (SELECT MDSYS.SDO_DIM_ARRAY( MDSYS.SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('X',190000, 640000, .005), MDSYS.SDO_DIM_ELEMENT('Y',120000, 630000, .005) ) as diminfo FROM dual) b; / POLYGON_NAME SDO_LENGTH GEOM_LENGTH SDO_AREA GEOM_AREA ------------------------- ----------- ----------- ---------- ---------- VERTEXWITHHOLE 2450.63204 172538.909 172538.909 2450.63204 VERTEXNOHOLE 10904.004 1878660.14 1878660.14 10904.004 VERTEXNOHOLE 1355.00349 74901.4188 74901.4188 1355.00349 COMPOUNDOUTERSHELL 28.7626555 40.675415 40.675415 28.7626555 VERTEXNOHOLE 1888.23609 189833.345 189833.345 1888.23609 VERTEXWITHARCNOHOLE 28.7626555 40.675415 40.675415 28.7626555 NORMALISEDRECTANGLENOHOLE 1920000 2.2950E+11 2.2950E+11 1920000 CURVEPOLYWITHHOLE 5331.45953 1507964.47 1507964.47 5331.45953 8 rows selected.

**6.0 Java Topology Suite – Spatial Companion For Oracle (SC4O)**

The Java Topology Suite is a free API for spatial data that is capable of being deployed into the JVM that is shipped with Oracle 10gR2 and 11g. JTS has a set of “geoprocessing” functions that could be used as “drop in” replacements for the Enterprise Edition licensed functions in the SDO_GEOM package or to complement the existing package.

In investigated this capability over the past year or so and have now released a set of Java classes that wrap JTS and Jaspa functions. This package of functionality is called the “Spatial Companion for Oracle (SC4O)”:http://www.spatialdbadvisor.com/source_code/223/geoprocessing-package-documentation. The package can be downloaded from “here”:http://www.spatialdbadvisor.com/source_code_form

## Documentation

- MySQL Spatial General Function Documentation
- Oracle LRS Object Documentation
- Oracle Spatial Exporter Package Documentation
- Oracle Spatial Object Function Documentation
- Oracle Spatial Object Function Documentation (Multi Page Version)
- PostGIS pl/pgSQL Function Documentation
- SC4O Oracle Java Topology Suite (Stored Procedures) Package Documentation
- SQL Server Spatial General TSQL Function Documentation
- SQL Server Spatial LRS TSQL Function Documentation